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A broad overview of on-line power system security analysis is provided, with the intent of identifying areas needing additional research and development. Current approaches to state estimation are reviewed and areas needing improvement, such as external system modeling, are discussed. On-line contingency selection has become practical, particularly for static security. Additional work is necessary to identify better indices of power system stress to be used in on-line screening filters for both static and dynamic security analysis. Use of optimal power flow schemes to recommend optimal preventive and corrective strategies is presented on a conceptual level.

Techniques must be further developed to provide more practical contingency action plans, which include real-world operating considerations and use a reasonably small number of control actions. Techniques must be developed for costing operating variables which are not easily quantified in dollars. Soft or flexible constraints and time variables must be included in the preventive and corrective strategy formulation. Finally, the area of on-line transient and dynamic security analysis is presented


The electric power business is rapidly becoming market driven. However, because of the increasingly intimate role that electric energy plays in the national economy, security remains to be the most important aspect of power systems operation which cannot be compromised in a market-driven approach. Recent developments based on the standard market design (SMD) in restructured electric power systems provide an opportunity for electricity market participants, such as generation companies (GENCOs), transmission companies (TRANSCOs), and distribution companies (DISCOs) to exercise least-cost or profit-based operations. In a competitive electricity market, the ISO coordinates the SMD attributes with market participants for satisfying hourly load demand limited fuel and other resources, environmental constraints, and transmission security requirements.


The on-line security analysis is performed by energy management systems (EMS) at power system control centers. On-line security analysis encompasses two main parts:
·         System Monitoring
·         Contingency Analysis.
System monitoring is exclusively a real-time function, but contingency analysis, which is discussed in this section, is also used in off-line applications considered in other time scales.
Recent blackouts in the India, US and throughout the world provided a growing evidence that certain actions are urgently needed to ensure that the electricity sector will continue to provide secure and affordable energy to its customers. The restructuring of electricity and the creation of self-interested entities such as generating and transmission companies have surfaced many shortcomings of the existing electricity systems in an interconnected network. This paper reviewed some of the existing methodologies for enhancing the power systems security in vertically integrated utilities and proposed alternatives in various time scales for improving the security of restructured power systems.

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