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Spin Valve Transistor Seminar Report


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                                                CHAPTER-1
                                            INTRODUCTION
1.1     GENERAL INTRODUCTION
 Spintronics
 is a rapidly emerging field of science and technology that will most likely have a significant impact on the future of all aspects of electronics as we continue to move into the 21st century. Conventional electronics are based on the charge of the electron. Attempts to use the other fundamental property of an electron, its spin, have given rise to a new, rapidly evolving field, known as spintronics, an acronym for spin transport electronics that was first introduced in 1996 to designate a program of the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Initially, the spintronics program involved overseeing the development of advanced magnetic memory and sensors based on spin transport electronics Studies of spin-polarized transport in bulk and low-dimensional semiconductor structures show promise for the creation of a hybrid device that would combine magnetic storage with gain—in effect, a spin memory transistor.
 Magnetic materials and magnetic devices have occupied a major place in science and technology for most of the twentieth century and played a very important role in the emergence of the digital computer by providing both ferrite  core and plated wire memories. It was not until the early 1980s that thin-film magnetism was applied to higher-density nonvolatile random access memory .A new path leading to the integration of magnetic devices into computer technology began to emerge with the discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. Although it was known for quite some time that the current from a magnetic metal is spin-polarized and that current transport through adjacent magnetic layers depends on the spin-polarization of those layers, neither the magnitude of the current nor the temperature at which it was observed were of technological significance. Discoveries in this new field were quite rapid, and the path toward a new technology started to appear quite early.
  Applications
1            Spin valve transistors have  huge potential for incoporatio in stable, high sensitivity  magnetic field sensors for automotive , robotic , mechanical  engineering and  data  storage  applications.     
2                 It finds its application towards quantum computer, a new trend in computing here we use qubits instead of bits.Qubit exploit spin up and spin down states as super positions of zero and one.
3                 They have the advantage over conventional semi conductor chips that do not require power to maintain their memory state.
4                 This may  also be used as Magnetically controlled parametric amplifiers and mixers, as magnetic signal processors for control of brush less dc motors as magnetic logic elements.
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