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CELLONICS SEMINAR REPORT



                                                 CHAPTER-1
  
1.1 INTRODUCTION
 Cellonics Incorporated has developed new technology that may end this and other communications problems forever. The new modulation and demodulation technology is called Cellonics. In general, this technology will allow for modem speeds that are 1,000 times faster than our present modems. The development is based on the way biological cells communicate with each other and nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS). Major telcos, which are telecommunications companies, will benefit from the incredible speed, simplicity, and robustness of this new technology, as well as individual users.
 In current technology, the ASCII uses a combination of ones and zeros to display a single letter of the alphabet (Cellonics, 2001). Then the data is sent over radio frequency cycle to its destination where it is then decoded. The original technology also utilizes carrier signals as a reference which uses hundreds of wave cycles before a decoder can decide on the bit value (Legard, 2001), whether the bit is a one or a zero, in order to translate that into a single character.
            The Cellonics technology came about after studying biological cell behaviour. The study showed that human cells respond to stimuli and generate waveforms that consist of a continuous line of pulses separated by periods of silence. The Cellonics technology found a way to mimic these pulse signals and apply them to the communications industry (Legard, 2001). The Cellonics element accepts slow analog waveforms as input and in return produces predictable, fast pulse output, thus encoding digital information and sending it over communication channels. Nonlinear Dynamical Systems (NDS) are the mathematical formulations required to simulate the cell responses and were used in building Cellonics. Because the technique is nonlinear, performance can exceed the norm, but at the same time, implementation is straightforward (Legard, 2001).

                                              CHAPTER-2
 PRINCIPLE OF CELLONICS TECHNOLOGY
2.1 PRINCIPLE
            The Cellonics technology is a revolutionary and unconventional approach based on the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) and modelled after biological cellbehaviour1. In essence, the term Cellonics is an euphemism for ‘electronic cells’. When used in the field of communications, the technology has the ability to encode, transmit and decode digital information powerfully over a variety of physical channels, be they cables or wirelessly through the air.
                             Fig 2.1: Measured ß-cell Response
There has been much research over the past decades to study inter-cell communications. Laboratory studies have recorded electrical waveforms that show burst of spikes separated by periods of silence
                                                
                                               CHAPTER-3
CELLONICS CIRCUITS
3.1 THE CELLONICS CIRCUITS
Cellonics Inc. has developed and patented families of Cellonics circuits that are useful for various applications. One of these Cellonics circuits is an extremely simple circuit that exhibits the “Scurve” transfer characteristic. Fig 3.1 shows one of the possible circuit realizations. The circuit contains a negative impedance converter. Its I-V transfer characteristic is shown in Fig 3.2.Thetransfer characteristic consists of three different regions. The two lines at the top and bottom have positive slope, 1/RF and they represent the regions in which the Op-Amp is operating in the saturated (nonlinear) mode. In Fig 3.2, the middle segment has a negative slope (negative resistance)
                           
                              

                                                CHAPTER-4
             APPLICATIONS TO TELECOMMUNICATIONS
4.1 APPLICATIONS
The Cellonics technology can be used as a modulation/demodulation technique with the Cellonics Element embedded in the demodulator (Fig 4.1). One of the most important features of the Cellonics demodulation technique is its powerful inherent Carrier-rate Decoding, which enables one information symbol to be carried in one RF carrier cycle. Convention systems require thousands of cycles to capture one symbol. Cellonics unique Carrier-rate Decoding™ offers throughput at maximum rate.

   
                                                            CHAPTER- 8
                                                          CONCLUSION
           The Cellonics communication method is one inspired by how biological cells signal. It is a fresh and novel look at how digital signals may be conveyed. In this digital day and age, it is timely; current digital communication designs are mostly derived from old analog signal methods. With the Cellonics method, much of the sub-systems in a traditional communication system are not required. Noise-generating and power-consuming systems such as voltage-controlled oscillators, PLLs, mixers, power amplifiers, etc., are eliminated. To a communications engineer, this is unheard off. One just doesn’t build a communication device without an oscillator, mixer.

Such is the revolutionary impact of Cellonics. Engineers will have to reform their thinking- that such a simple solution is possible.

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