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DC Motor Speed & Direction Control Using Microcontroller & GSM Modem Project Report


DC motors are widely used in industrial applications. In this regard controling the speed in wide range is another aspects. For this purpose, here is an abstract of the project.Electrical is the most valuable and precious one for this universe. In this the motor plays an important role. Hence we want to control the motor for our requirements.The aim of this project is to control the speed of the DC motor. Generally, DC motors are applicable for effective speed control and high starting torque applications like traction, lift, etc.Basically DC motor speed control is done by voltage control, armature resistance control and flux control methods. But in this project we are control the speed of the DC motor by Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique. From this method we can obtain a smooth speed variation with out reducing the starting torque of the motor.PWM technique also eliminate harmonics. Tools are availabe for DC machine. By using this, a simulink of the speed control of motor can be done in a any environment and also can be verified by experiments. 
Project Description:The DC Motor is controlled by giving PWM pulses. There is Particular Message Syntax which is used to control the Direction and Speed of Motor. One Syntax Controls the direction of Motor: Clockwise or Anticlockwise. Other three Syntax are used to provide different width (Pulse Width) pulses which controls the motor speed.SYNTAX OF MESSAGES FOR DC MOTOR SPEED AND DIRECTION CONTROL:M-ANTI-HIGH-#               :For Anticlock Wise & High SpeedM-CLKW-HIGH-#             :For Clock Wise & High SpeedM-ANTI-LOWS-#              :For Anticlock Wise & Low SpeedM-CLKW-LOWS-#                        :For Clock Wise & Low Speed Microcontroller controls the Switching section and Motor Driver L293D IC.DC Motor is driven by L293D Motor Driver IC.PWM:Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a commonly used technique for controlling power to inertial electrical devices, made practical by modern electronic power switches.The average value of voltage (and current) fed to the load is controlled by turning the switch between supply and load on and off at a fast pace. The longer the switch is on compared to the off periods, the higher the power supplied to the load is.

Chapter -2

Yunfeng,Li  Define that this study proposed element weight method to improve the calculation accuracy of storage capacity ofgeothermal reservoir. This method fully exploits all geothermal wells in the calculation region, and the calculation region of every three neighboring geothermal wells was divided into many calculation elements, the whole calculation region of the distribution parameters were discretized into independent lumped parameter regions in each element, the arithmetic mean of three node parameters in each element was used as the element lumped parameter and the block with the same set of parameters was divided into calculation regions as small as possible. The effect of one element as well as its the parameters in the whole calculation region depends on the weight of area of this element in the whole calculation area. The element weight method can be used to calculate volume water storage capacity of geothermal fluid, elastic release storage capacity, geothermalstorage capacity of volume water, geothermal energy storage capacity of elastic releasing water, geothermalstorage capacity of geothermal reservoir rocks for each element, respectively, and then storage capacities of various elements and the entire calculation regions can be calculated through summing up. In the second part of this study, the data of 65 existing geothermal wells were adopted to calculate storage capacity of geothermal lresources in LantianBahe Formation of Xi'an Depression by using the element weight method. If the geothermal lenergy recovery is set as 10%, under the current efforts of the exploitation, the geothermal energy contained ingeothermal reservoir can be extracted for more than 10,000 years, while under the current conditions of exploitation technology, the mining of available elastic release storage capacity can be maintained for more than 40 years.[1]
Braun, Gerald W.say thatGeothermal energy is an indigenous environmentally benign heat source with the potential for 5000-10000 GWe of power generation in the United States. Approximately 2535 MWe of installed capacity is currently operating in the US with contracted power costs down to 4.6 cents/kWh. The authors discuss the geothermal resources in the United States, their locations, potential, and current electric generation, and the power conversion systems used for geothermal power generation.Environmental aspects of geothermal power production, hurdles, bottlenecks and risks, and lessons learned to date are also discussed. Finally, on-going and future geothermal research programs to address the hurdles, bottlenecks, and risks of geothermal power production are briefly summarized.[2]
Ou,Ge  say that this paper presents an estimation of power generated in a given geothermal heat pipe system. Such powergeneration is basically controlled by the ultimate temperature of fluid flowing through the u-shape pipes and could also be affected by power consumption of pumps. The ultimate fluid temperature can be simulated by a simple numerical model for studying thermal behavior of soil-fluid material. Model results illustrated that the critical net power of geothermal power plants is restrained by the flow rate of the fluid which is limited by the current pump behavior. Comparison between geothermal heat pipe systems with different physical properties demonstrated the u-shape pipe with a larger design depth and a higher design velocity could produce larger amount of power.[3]
Tousif,Shaikh-Md-Rubayiatdefine that this work emphasis on producing electricity from geothermal energy. The paper talks about geothermal energy and also focuses on geothermal power plant and the basic operation of such a plant. It also focuses on issues like the potential, environmental impacts and generation capacity of geothermal power plant. It provides ample information which justifies why this method of producing electricity can be a primary choice in near future.[4]
Yan, Qiang define thatAccording to the technically mining depth of 5 km, the global recoverable geothermal resource extent reaches up to 3.4×1015 toe, of which, the economically recoverable resource extent reaches 1.19×1011 toe in the future 40~50 years, equivalent to about 10 times of global annual total primary energy supply. Nevertheless, the low temperature geothermal resources which feature with high development costs occupy the majority, while the high temperature ones are merely 1.9×109 toe. Currently, the percentage of geothermal energy in world energyconsumption structure is still quite low, equal to only 0.1%, far lower than that of other types of renewableenergy such as solar, wind and biomass. In this paper, the geothermal resources were evaluated, and the obstacles in the process of exploitation and development were analyzed, drawing the conclusion that geothermalenergy would possibly become a type of “complement” energy rather than “mainstream” energy.
Koroneos, Christopher J. say thatThe geothermal energy that is stored in the earth is so vast that could supply all the energy needed by humanity. The difficulty in tapping this energy lies in its diffusivity. The geothermal energy in regions close to volcanoes is close to the surface and easy to use economically. In this paper a vapor dominated system will be examined. The electricity that is produced from such a system is economically and environmentally in a better position than the electricity produced from coal or diesel. The Kalina cycle will be used in this system and an energy analysis is performed. The Kalina cycle is a new concept in power generation and uses a mixture of 70% ammonia and 30% water as the working fluid with the potential to increase the energy efficiency over the Rankine cycle. The energy analysis will provide a qualitative and quantitative picture of the process.

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