Wouldn’t you love to replace password based access control to avoid having to reset forgotten password and worry about the intergrity of your system? Wouldn’t you like to rest secure in comfort that your healthcare system does not merely on your social security number as proof of your identity for granting access to your medical records?

                      Because each of these questions is becoming more  and more important, access to a reliable personal identification is becoming increasingly essential .Conventional method of identification based on possession of ID cards or exclusive knowledge like a social security number or a password are not all together reliable. ID cards can be lost forged or misplaced; passwords can be forgotten or compromised. But a face is undeniably connected to its owner. It cannot be borrowed stolen or easily forged

                      The information age is quickly revolutionizing the way transactions are completed. Everyday actions are increasingly being handled electronically, instead of with pencil and paper or face to face. This growth in electronic transactions has resulted in a greater demand for fast and accurate user identification and authentication. Access codes for buildings, banks accounts and computer systems often use PIN's for identification and security clearences.

                      Using the proper PIN gains access, but the user of the PIN is not verified. When credit and ATM cards are lost or stolen, an unauthorized user can often come up with the correct personal codes. Despite warning, many people continue to choose easily guessed PIN's  and passwords: birthdays, phone numbers and social security numbers. Recent cases of identity theft have hightened the nee for methods to prove that someone is truly who he/she claims to be.

What are biometrics?
                      A biometric is a unique, measurable characteristic of a human being that can be used to automatically recognize an individual or verify an individual’s identity. Biometrics can measure both physiological and behavioral characteristics. Physiological biometrics (based on measurements and data derived from direct measurement of a part of the human body) include:

·        Finger-scan
·        Facial Recognition
·        Iris-scan
·        Retina-scan
·        Hand-scan

Behavioral biometrics (based on measurements and data derived from an action) include:

·        Voice-scan
·        Signature-scan
·        Keystroke-scan

A “biometric system” refers to the integrated hardware and software used to conduct biometric identification or verification.




                      The face is an important part of who you are and how people identify you.   Except in the case of identical twins, the face is arguably a person's most unique physical characteristics. While humans have the innate ability to recognize and distinguish different faces for millions of years , computers are just now catching up.

                      For face recognition there are two types of comparisons .the first is verification. This is where the system compares the given individual with who that individual says they are and gives a yes or no decision. The second is identification. This is where the system compares the given individual to all the

other individuals in the database and gives a ranked list of matches. All identification or authentication technologies operate using the following four stages:

·        Capture: a physical or behavioral sample is captured by the system during enrollment and also in identification or verification process.
·        Extraction: unique data is extracted from the sample and a template is created.
·        Comparison: the template is then compared with a new sample.
·        Match/non match : the system decides if the features extracted from the new sample are a match or a non match.

                      Face recognition technology analyze the unique shape ,pattern and positioning of the facial features. Face recognition is very complex technology and is largely software based. This Biometric Methodology establishes the analysis framework with  tailored algorithms for each type of biometric device. Face  recognition starts with a picture, attempting to find a person in the image. This can be accomplished using several methods including  movement, skin tones, or blurred human shapes. The face recognition  system locates the head and finally the eyes of the individual. A  matrix is then developed based on the characteristics of the individual’s  face. The method of defining the matrix varies according to the algorithm (the mathematical process used by the computer to perform the comparison). This matrix is then compared to matrices that are in a database and a similarity score is generated for each comparison.

                      Artificial intelligence is used to simulate human interpretation of faces. In order to increase the accuracy and adaptability , some kind of machine learning has to be implemented.



                      The implementation of face recognition technology include the following four stages:
·                     data acquisition
·                     input processing
·                     face image classification and decision making

Data acquisition:

                      The input can be recorded video of the speaker or a  still image. A sample of 1 sec duration consists of a 25 frame video sequence. More than one camera can be used to produce a 3D representation of the face and to protect against the usage of photographs to gain unauthorized access.

Input processing:

                      A pre-processing module locates the eye position and takes care of the surrounding lighting condition and colour variance. First the presence of faces or face in a scene must be detected. Once the face is detected, it must be localized and normalization process may be required to bring the dimensions of the live facial sample in alignment with the one on the template.

                      Some facial recognition approaches use the whole face while others concentrate on facial components and/ or regions(such as lips, eyes etc). the appearance of the face can change considerably during speech and due to facial expressions. In particular the mouth is subjected to fundemental changes

                      The natural use of face recognition technology is the replacement of PIN, physical tokens or both needed in automatic authorization or identification schemes. Additional uses are automation of human identification or role authentication in such cases where assistance of another human needed in verifying the ID cards and its beholder.
There are numerous applications for face recognition technology:

Government Use
1.       Law Enforcement: Minimizing victim trauma by narrowing mugshot searches, verifying identify for court records, and comparing school surveillance camera images to known child molesters.
1.      Security/Counterterrorism. Access control, comparing surveillance images to   known terrorists.
2.      Immigration: Rapid progression through Customs.

Commercial Use
1.      Day Care: Verify identity of individuals picking up the children.
2.      Residential Security: Alert homeowners of approaching personnel.
3.      Voter verification: Where eligible politicians are required to verify  their identity during a voting process. this is intended to stop 'proxy' voting where the vote may not go as expected.
4.      Banking using ATM: The software is able to quickly verify a customers face.
5.      Physical access control of buildings areas ,doors, cars or net access.

      Other potential applications include ATM and check-cashing security. The software is able to quickly verify a customer's face. After a customer consents, the ATM or check-cashing kiosk captures a digital image of him. The FaceIt software then generates a faceprint of the photograph to protect customers against identity theft and fraudulent transactions. By using the facial recognition software, there's no need for a picture ID, bankcard or personal identification number (PIN) to verify a customer's identity. This way business can prevent fraud from occurring.


                      Face recognition technologies have been associated generally with very costly top secure applications. Today the core technologies have evolved and the cost of equipments  is going down dramatically due to the intergration and the increasing  processing power. Certain application of face recognition technology are now cost effective, reliable and highly accurate. As a result there are no technological or financial barriers for stepping from the pilot project to widespread deployment.

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