Every month we can see a person standing in front of our house from Electricity board or water Board whose duty is to read the energy meter/water meter and handover the bills (electric or water) to the owner of that house . This is nothing but meter reading. According to that reading we have to pay the bills. The main drawback of this system is that person has to go area by area and he has to read the meter of every house and handover the bills. The Electricity board and Water authority has to give privileges for these people to do their duty monthly. The thing is, Government will not appoint any particular persons for this duty. The people working in these boards will go on a particular day and do their duty leaving all their pending works. Due to this, their work will be delayed and this is great loss for government. To overcome this drawback we have come up with an idea and this idea will help the government and it will save the time of the employees working in these boards. Another advantage of the prepaid system is that the human errors made reading meters and processing bills can be reduced to a large extent. Many works in the field of prepaid meter have already been done but they have used 8051 controller for their operation. In this paper, the idea of pre-paid energy meter using AVR controller have been introduced. In this method 8051 has been replaced by AVR controller because, it is energy efficient i.e. it consume less power, it is fastest among all the microcontroller families, it has inbuilt ADC and have advanced RISC architecture. In this paper, energy meters have not been replaced which is already installed at our houses, but a small modification on the already installed meters can change the existing meters into prepaid meters, so this meters are very cheaper. The use of GSM module provides a feature of pre-paid through SMS. One can recharge meter with the help of mobile through SMS, on the basis of recharge amount, AVR controller count the amount of energy consumed and display the remaining amount of energy on the LCD. If the amount falls below certain minimum amount, then it will be indicated by the controller through buzzer. ,
The present billing system is minimally able to detect power theft and even when it does it is at the end of the month. Also, the distribution company is facing many problems in terms of losses. The distribution company is unable to keep track of the changing maximum demand for domestic consumers. The consumer is facing problems like receiving due bills for bills that have already been paid as well as poor reliability of electricity supply and quality even if bills are paid regularly. The remedy for all these problems is to keep track of the consumers load on a timely basis, which will help assure accurate billing, track maximum demand, and detect online theft. These are all the features to be taken into account for designing an efficient energy billing system. The present project “AVR Microcontroller based prepaid energy meter‟ for India. Incorporate these features to address the problems faced by both the consumers and the distribution companies. The paper mainly deals with pre-paid energy meter. Which utilizes the features of embedded system, which is the combination of hardware and software in order to implement desired functionality. The next session of the paper discuss comparison between different Microcontrollers and the compiler used to program the Microcontroller. The final session of the paper discuss with the application of GSM Modem to introduce pre paid concept. With the use of GSM modem one can recharge the energy meter with the help of mobile. Also the amount left for usage will be continuously displayed on the LCD and if the amount fall below certain minimum value then it can be indicated with the help of buzzer. The purpose of this project is to remote monitoring and control of the Domestic Energy meter. This system enables the Electricity Department to read the meter readings regularly without the person visiting each house. This can be achieved by the use of Microcontroller unit that continuously monitors and records the Energy Meter readings in its permanent (non-volatile) memory location. This system also makes use of a GSM modem for remote monitoring and control of Energy Meter. The Microcontroller based system continuously records the readings and the live meter reading can be sent to the Electricity department on request. This system also can be used to disconnect the power supply to the house in case of non-payment of electricity bills. A dedicated GSM modem with SIM card is required for each energy meter.
1.1 Project Motivation
The motive of this “pre paid energy meter project”, is “pay before use” by implementing this GSM based prepaid energy meter. The main objective of this prepaid energy meter project is to minimize the illegal usage of electricity. The conventional billing strategies had several drawbacks and man made errors. To overcome these undesirable entities this newly proposed system is an ideal choice. Now a day lake of electricity is the major crises in the world. So we need to utilize the non- conventional energy sources to generate the electricity because conventional energy sources are limited so we can`t depend on them for long time.
This work presents the results of a project aimed at verifying the applicability of industrial model predictive control (MPC) to thermal Power Plants. The research is motivated by the need to improve the efficiency of power plants so as to cope with the high levels of competition induced by the deregulation of the energy market. A detailed plant simulator, already used for operators training and controllers tuning, is coupled to an industrial software package implementing the dynamic matrix control algorithm. The achieved results witness the great potentialities of MPC, with respect to classical decentralized schemes, in terms of economical savings, reduction of pollutants, improved flexibility, easier tuning and better documentation.
There are several compelling reasons why the United States should be concerned about the security of its energy supply for the long term. They include growth in demand, as a result of an increasing U.S. population, along with increased electrification of our society. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA, 2006), U.S. nameplate generating capacity has increased more than 40% in the past 10 years and is now more than 1 TWe.
1.2 Object of the Project
1.2.1 Energy Conversion
The principle of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, i.e. in transformation an isolated system, the total energy before transformation is equal to the total energy. The law of conservation of energy, first formulated in the nineteenth century, is a law of physics. It states that the total amount of energy in an isolated system remains constant over time. The total energy is said to be conserved over time. For an isolated system, this law means that energy can change its location within the system, and that it can change form within the system, for instance chemical energy can become kinetic energy, but that energy can be neither created nor destroyed.
CONCLUSION & FUTURE SCOPE
Paper is intended to present an overview of pre-paid energy meter, which can control the usage of electricity on consumer side to avoid wastage of power. Since there is need to utilize energy in better and efficient way, so this pre-paid meter proves to be a boon in the power sector. The major drawback of a post paid system is that there is no control of usage from the consumer's side. There is a lot of wastage of power due to the consumer’s lack of planning of electrical consumption in an efficient way. Since the supply of power is limited, as a responsible citizen, there is a need to utilize electricity in a better and efficient way. The distribution company has to receive huge amounts in the form of pending bills, which results in substantial revenue losses and also hurdles to modernization because of lack of funds. The billing system is minimally able to detect power theft and even when it does at the end of the month. Also, the distribution company is facing many problems in terms of losses. The distribution company is unable to keep track of the changing maximum demand for domestic consumers. The consumer is facing problems like receiving due bills for bills that have already been paid as well as poor reliability of electricity supply and quality even if bills are paid regularly. The remedy for all these problems is to keep track of the consumers load on a timely basis, which will help assure accurate billing, track maximum demand, and detect online theft. These are all the features to be taken into account for designing an efficient energy billing system. The present project incorporates these features to address the problems faced by both the consumers and the distribution companies.
5.2 FUTURE SCOPE
We are sending bills through post, instead of this, we can add a printer in every house and if we give print command from the server, it will print the bill and the user can get the bill over there only.