Solar panel converts the light energy from the sun into electrical energy. In ordinary solar panel systems, the solar panel is fixed in a particular direction. The solar panel delivers maximum energy only when it faces directly towards the sun. Since the sun is moving continuously, the solar panel cannot deliver maximum energy when the solar panel fixed at one direction.
The goal of the project is to control the solar panel continuously , according to the movement of the sun. This is done by controlling the mechanical movement of solar panel. The mechanical movement of solar panel is controlled through the stepper motor using Power Electronics. The sun’s movement from east to west so the single axis tracker is applies according to them.
Photovoltaic systems (PV system) use solar panels to convert sunlight into electricity. A system is made up of one or more photovoltaic (PV) panels, a DC/ AC power converter (also known as an inverter), a tracking system that holds the solar panels, electrical interconnections, and mounting for other components. Optionally it may include a maximum power point tracker (MPPT), battery system and charger, solar tracker, software, solar or other equipment. A small PV system may provide energy to a single consumer, or to an isolated device like a lamp or a weather instrument. Large grid-connected PV systems can provide the energy needed by many customers. The electricity generated can be either stored, used directly (island/standalone plant), or fed into a large electricity grid powered by central generation plants (grid-connected/grid-tied plant), or combined with one or many domestic electricity generators to feed into a small grid (hybrid plant). Systems are generally designed in order to ensure the highest energy yield for a given investment.
ARTUR SKOCZEK describe that, This paper presents the results of electrical performance measurements of 204 crystalline silicon-wafer based photovoltaic modules following long-term continuous outdoor exposure. The modules comprise a set of 53 module types originating from 20 different producers, all of which were originally characterized at the European Solar Test Installation (ESTI), over the period 1982-1986. The modules represent diverse generations of PV technologies, different encapsulation and substrate materials. The modules electrical performance was determined according to the standards IEC 60891 and the IEC 60904 series, electrical insulation tests were performed according to the recent IEC 61215 editions 2. Many manufacturers currently give a double power warranty for their products, typically 90% of the initial maximum power after 10 years and 80% of the original maximum power after 25 years.
RYAN WISER, KARLYNN CORY describe that, Renewable power technologies are inherently capital-intensive, often (but not always) with relatively high construction costs and low operating costs. For this reason, renewable power technologies are typically more sensitive to the availability and cost of financing than are natural gas power plants, for example. In the United States, the bulk of renewable project finance in recent years has been provided by “tax equity investors” (typically large investment banks and insurance companies) who partner with project developers through highly specialized financing structures (Bolinger, 2009; Cory et al., 2008; Harper et al., 2007). These structures have been designed primarily to capitalize on federal support for renewable power technologies, which has historically come in the form of tax credits and accelerated depreciation deductions.
DESIGN OF PROPOSED WORK
We were going to describe the all part of the project are connected together. The electrical power coming through the solar PV array is fed to the voltage regulator ,this regulator regulate the voltage or control the voltage to charge the battery bank ,then the power stored in battery by the voltage controller output. The power of battery then supplied directly to the DC power socket at panel for connecting external DC load. Or the DC of the battery is also given to the inverter circuit which convert the DC in to AC then the ac output from the inv circuit is given to the step up transformer which step up the supply up to 220 v AC .Which is then given to the AC power socket mounted on the front panel for connecting external AC load .There is an external motor control drive to control the motor rotation of the tracking system. The auxiliary supply to this motor drive is given by the battery bank. This complete arrangement exact panel and tracker is mounted in a wooden cabinet provided with a panel mounted window on which all control switches and testing terminal were mounted. Thus this REPV inverter is ready to apply and use.
Inverter presented here (see Figure ) mainly by the MOS FET , constitute a general power transformer . The output power depends on the MOS FET and power transformer power , eliminating the cumbersome transformer winding , suitable for electronic production with amateur enthusiasts . The following describes the working principle of the inverter and the production process. Figure 2 circuit diagram Click to enlarge Here we will detail the working principle of this inverter. Square-wave generator (see Figure 3) Figure 3 CD4069 inverter used here constitutes the six square wave signal generator. R1 is the resistance compensation circuit for improved power supply voltage due to changes caused by oscillation frequency instability.
Based on the studies of SHS and solar PV micro utility, rural electrification through
Solar energy provided the following observations:
· Lack of awareness of solar energy technology necessitates demonstration of
it to rural people.
· Appropriate financial arrangements, which may include payment in installments, fee for services and other suitable modes, are necessary for rural people to afford the system.
· Technical training can enable users to do trouble shooting for minor problems such as replacing fuses, adding distilled water, and replacing bulbs. This may avoid technician calls and increase system reliability.
· Technician training is essential for developing local technical support, which can also help make the project sustainable.
· Women also should be invited for training, as they are the main users of the systems and can do some of the maintenance.
· Solar systems with different options should be available to consumers so they can choose themselves according to their needs and financial capacity.
· For the electrification of rural markets through solar energy, local collective management yields better results by reducing the risk of theft and nonpayment.
· Solar systems help in generating income, for instance, by extending working hours and creating a convenient environment for business.
· Components/accessories of solar systems should be available locally so that the users can buy them easily when required. This can increase acceptability of the technology by users.