GSM AND GPS BASED VEHICLE LOCATION AND TRACKING SYSTEM
A vehicle tracking system combines the installation of an electronic device in a vehicle, or fleet of vehicles, with purpose-designed computer software to
enable the owner or a third party to track the vehicle's location, collecting data in the process. Modern vehicle tracking systems commonly use Global
Positioning System (GPS) technology for locating the vehicle, but other types of automatic vehicle location technology can also be used. Vehicle information can
be viewed on electronic maps via the Internet or specialized software. In the main they are easy to steal, and the average motorist has very little knowledge of what it is all about. To avoid this kind of steal we are going to implement a system it provides more security to the vehicle. Existing System: In the previous system security lock and alarm is implemented in a car. If a burglar can break open the
lock, then it becomes easy for the burglar to steal the car. And in old security system if the car is stolen then it is out of the owner control. User doesn’t have any awareness about the current location of the vehicle. The Proposed System: The RF transmitter is attached with the vehicle which has its own identification.
Thisdata will be continuously transmitted to the RF receiver connected to the microcontroller. This GPS will be location the position of vehicle and transmit
that data to the microcontroller. Suppose the RF receiver not receiving signal from the transmitting unit, receiver unit send the signal to the microcontroller, from that we can identify the theft. If the vehicle is theft it automatically sends location of the vehicle to its owner as a SMS through GSM modem. This will be a much simpler and low cost technique compared to others. If a password like SMS
is sent by the owner, it automatically stops the vehicle Keywords: Global Positioning System (GPS), RF receiver and transmitter, operations and maintenance center (OMC) and Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK).
GSM and GPS based vehicle location and tracking system will provide effective, real time vehicle location, mapping and reporting this information value and adds by improving the level of service provided. A GPS-based vehicle tracking system will inform where your vehicle is and where it has been, how long it has been. The system uses geographic position and time information from the Global Positioning Satellites. The system has an "On- Board Module" which resides in the vehicle to be tracked and a "Base Station" that monitors data from the various vehicles. The On-Board module consists of GPs receiver, a GSM modem
1.1 Vehicle Tracking System: A vehicle tracking system combines the installation of an electronic device in a vehicle, or fleet of vehicles, with purposedesigned computer software at least at one operational base to enable the owner or a third party to track the vehicle's location, collecting data in the process from the field and deliver it to the base of operation. Modern vehicle tracking systems commonly use GPS or GLONASS technology for locating the vehicle, but other types of automatic vehicle location technology can also be used. Vehicle information can be viewed on electronic maps via the Internet or specialized software.Vehicle tracking systems are also popular in consumer vehicles as a theft prevention and retrieval device. Police can simply follow the signal emitted by the tracking system and locate the stolen vehicle.
When used as a security system, a Vehicle Tracking System may serve as either an addition to or replacement for a traditional Car alarm. Some vehicle tracking systems make it possible to control vehicle remotely, including block doors or engine in case of emergency. The existence of vehicle tracking device then can be used to reduce the insurance cost.
1.2 GSM Overview: Global System for Mobile
Communications or GSM (originally from Group Spécial Mobile), is the world's most popular standard for mobile telephone systems. The GSM Association estimates that 80% of the global mobile market uses the standard. GSM is used by over 1.5 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories. This ubiquity means that subscribers can use their phones throughout the world,enabled by international roaming arrangements between mobile network operators. GSM differs from its predecessor technologies in that both signaling and speech channels are digital, and thus GSM is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. The GSM standard has been an advantage to both consumers, who may benefit from the ability to roam and switch carriers without replacing phones, and also to network operators, who can choose equipment from many GSM equipment vendors.
1.3 GPS Overview: The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that provides reliable location and time information in all weather and at all times and anywhere on or near the Earth when and where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible by anyone with a GPS receiver. The GPS project was started in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previou navigation systems, integrating ideas from several predecessors, including a number of classified engineering design studies from the 1960s. GPS wa created and realized by the U.S. Department of
Defense (USDOD) and was originally run with 24 satellites. It became fully operational in 1994.
2. GSM MODEM:
Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular
communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz. A GSM modem is a wireless modem that works with a GSM wireless network. A wireless modem behaves like a dial-up modem. The main difference between them is that a dial-up modem sends and receives data through a fixed telephone line while a wireless modem sends and receives data through radio waves. The working of GSM modem is based on commands, the commands always start with AT (which means ATtention) and finish with a <CR> character. For example, the dialing command is
ATD<number>; ATD3314629080; here the dialing
command ends with semicolon.The AT commands are given to the GSM
modem with the help of PC or controller. The GSMmodem is serially interfaced with the controller withthe help of MAX 232..
2.1 Circuit Diagram:
Neither of these approaches proved to be the
long-term solution as cellular technology needed to be
more efficient. With the experience gained from the
NMT system, showing that it was possible to develop
a system across national boundaries, and with the
political situation in Europe lending itself to
international cooperation it was decided to develop a
new Pan-European System. Furthermore it was
realized that economies of scale would bring
significant benefits. This was the beginnings of the
GSM system. To achieve the basic definition
of a new system a meeting was held in 1982 under the
auspices of the Conference of European Posts and
Telegraphs (CEPT). They formed a study group called
the Groupe Special Mobile ( GSM ) to study and
develop a pan-European public land mobile system.
Several basic criteria that the new cellular technology
would have to meet were set down for the new GSM
system to meet. These included: good subjective
speech quality, low terminal and service cost, support
for international roaming, ability to support handheld
terminals, support for range of new services and
facilities, spectral efficiency, and finally ISDN
With the levels of under-capacity being
projected for the analogue systems, this gave a real
sense of urgency to the GSM development. Although
decisions about the exact nature of the cellular
technology were not taken at an early stage, all parties
involved had been working toward a digital system.
This decision was finally made in February 1987. This
gave a variety of advantages. Greater levels of spectral
efficiency could be gained, and in addition to this the
use of digital circuitry would allow for higher levels of
integration in the circuitry. This in turn would result in
cheaper handsets with more features. Nevertheless
significant hurdles still needed to be overcome. For
example, many of the methods for encoding the
speech within a sufficiently narrow bandwidth needed
to be developed, and this posed a significant risk to the
project. Nevertheless the GSM system had been
Global usage:Originally GSM had been planned as a
European system. However the first indication that the
success of GSM was spreading further a field occurred
when the Australian network provider, Telstra signed
the GSM Memorandum of Understanding.
Frequencies:Originally it had been intended that
GSM would operate on frequencies in the 900 MHz
cellular band. In September 1993, the British operator
Mercury One-to-One launched a network. Termed
DCS 1800 it operated at frequencies in a new 1800
MHz band. By adopting new frequencies new
operators and further competition was introduced into
the market apart from allowing additional spectrum to
be used and further increasing the overall capacity.
This trend was followed in many countries, and soon
the term DCS 1800 was dropped in favour of calling it
GSM as it was purely the same cellular technology but
operating on a different frequency band. In view of the
higher frequency used the distances the signals
travelled was slightly shorter but this was
compensated for by additional base stations.
In the USA as well a portion of spectrum at
1900 MHz was allocated for cellular usage in 1994.
The licensing body, the FCC, did not legislate which
technology should be used, and accordingly this
enabled GSM to gain a foothold in the US market.
This system was known as PCS 1900 (Personal
3.THE GSM NETWORK:
GSM provides recommendations, not
requirements. The GSM specifications define the
functions and interface requirements in detail but do
not address the hardware. The reason for this is to
limit the designers as little as possible but still to make
it possible for the operators to buy equipment from
different suppliers. The GSM network is divided into
three major systems: the switching system (SS), the
base station system (BSS), and the operation and
support system (OSS).
Fig 3.GSM Network Elements
The operations and maintenance center (OMC)
is connected to all equipment in the switching system
and to the BSC. The implementation of OMC is called
the operation and support system (OSS). The OSS is
the functional entity from which the network operator
monitors and controls the system. The purpose of OSS
is to offer the customer cost-effective support for
centralized, regional, and local operational and
maintenance activities that are required for a GSM
network. An important function of OSS is to provide a
network overview and support the maintenance
activities of different operation and maintenance
CHARACTERISTICS FOR GSM
The specifications and characteristics for GSM
· frequency band—The frequency range specified for
GSM is 1,850 to 1,990 MHz (mobile station to base
· duplex distance—The duplex distance is 80 MHz.
Duplex distance is the distance between the uplink and
downlink frequencies. A channel has two frequencies,
80 MHz apart.
· channel separation—The separation between adjacent
carrier frequencies. In GSM, this is 200 kHz.
· modulation—Modulation is the process of sending a
signal by changing the characteristics of a carrier
frequency. This is done in GSM via Gaussian
minimum shift keying (GMSK).
· transmission rate—GSM is a digital system with
an over-the-air bit rate of 270 kbps.
4.1 GSM AND GPS BASED VECHICLE
LOCATION AND TRACKING SYSTEM
Present project is designed using 8051
microcontroller in this Project it is proposed to design
an embedded system which is used for tracking and
positioning of any vehicle by using Global Positioning
System (GPS) and Global system for mobile
In this project AT89S52 microcontroller is
used for interfacing to various hardware peripherals.
The current design is an embedded application, which
will continuously monitor a moving Vehicle and
report the status of the Vehicle on demand. For doing
so an AT89S52 microcontroller is interfaced serially
to a GSM Modem and GPS Receiver. A GSM modem
is used to send the position (Latitude and Longitude)
of the vehicle from a remote place. The GPS modem
will continuously give the data i.e. the latitude and
longitude indicating the position of the vehicle. The
GPS modem gives many parameters as the output, but
only the NMEA data coming out is read and displayed
on to the LCD. The same data is sent to the mobile at
the other end from where the position of the vehicle is
demanded. An EEPROM is used to store the mobile
number. The hardware interfaces to microcontroller
are LCD display, GSM modem and GPS Receiver.
The design uses RS-232 protocol for serial
communication between the modems and the
microcontroller. A serial driver IC is used for
converting TTL voltage levels to RS-232 voltage
levels.In the main they are easy to steal, and the
average motorist has very little knowledge of what it
is all about. To avoid this kind of steal we are going to
implement this project which provides more security
to the vehicle. When the request by user is sent to the
number at the modem, the system automatically sends
a return reply to that mobile indicating the position of
the vehicle in terms of latitude and longitude from this
information we can track our vehicles.
4. APPLICATIONS AND ADVANTAGES
· Stolen vehicle recovery .
· Field sevice management.
· It is used for food delivery and car rental
· It provides more security than other system.
· From the remote place we can access the system.
· By this we can position the vehicle in exact
5.CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
Vehicle tracking system is becoming
increasingly important in large cities and it is more
secured than other systems. Now a days vehicle
thefting is rapidly increasing , with this we can have a
good control in it.The vehicle can be turned off by
only with a simple SMS.Since, now a days the cost of
the vehicles are increasing they will not step back to
offord it.This setup can be made more interactive by
adding a display to show some basic information
about the vehicle and also add emergency numbers
which can be used in case of emergency.Upgrading
this setup is very easy which makes it open to future