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CHARACTERISTICS OF STORAGE CELLS SEMINAR REPORT

                                           Abstract
Charge equalization is a major issue in the service of  
batteries since thay are frequenctly connected in series to obtain the higher output voltage levels for most applications. With series connection, impedance amy happen to the operating batteries during either charging or discharging periods. The imbalance among batteries concerns the operating efficiency and the battery lifetime. The main objective of this seminar to solve the problem of charging and discharging and their protections.With sufficient electricity storage capacity, any power production profile may be mapped onto any desired supply profile. We present a framework to determine the required storage power as a function of time for any power production profile, supply profile, and targeted system efficiency, given the loss characteristics of the storage system. We apply the framework to the electrochemical storage of intermittent renewable power, employing a simplifying linear response approximation that permits the entire efficiency behavior of the system to be described by a single scalar figure of merit—the discharge power capacity. Solid-electrode batteries are shown to have two orders of magnitude too little energy to power ratio to be well suited to the storageof intermittent
                                        
                                    CHAPTER 1                                                                 ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL
Introduction
An electrochemical cell consists of two half-cells. Each half-cell consists ofan electrode and an electrolyte. The two half-cells may use the same electrolyte, or they may use different electrolytes. The chemical reactions in the cell may involve the electrolyte, the electrodes, or an external substance (as in fuel cells that may use hydrogen gas as a reactant). In a full electrochemical cell, species from one half-cell lose electrons (oxidation) to their electrode while species from the other half-cell gain electrons (reduction) from their electrode.A salt bridge (filter paper soaked in KNO3 or some other electrolyte) is often employed to provide ionic contact between two half-cells with different electrolytesand prevent the solutions from mixing and causing unwanted side reactions.Each half-cell has a characteristic voltage. Various choices of substances for each half-cell give different potential differences. Each reaction is undergoing an equilibrium reaction between different oxidation states of the ions. When equilibrium is reached, the cell cannot provide further voltage.                 
                                        Chapter 5
CONCLUSION AND DIRECTION TO FUTURE SCOPE
 In this seminar we learn a lot of new things regarding the battery of cell. In this we lean the basic fundamentals of battery and cell and their options, out voltage and current, capacity of the cell. The discharging methods or charging methods of the storage cells and output characteristics of various cells under different temperature conditions are deeply understood by us. This knowledge of storage cell will help to solar power engineer for selecting the battery of proper rating as per the temperature condition at the site where you are going to install the solar power plant.The some part also not covered in this seminar and after reading this seminar one can go and work on following subtopics related to rechargeable storage cells-F Protection circuit for storage cells and their online monitoring
F Various output characteristics of storage cell can be simulated or drawn with the help of soft-computing tools like MATLAB.
F Optimum rate of discharging of cell under the solar power plant so that life of battery will be better.
  An electrochemical cell is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or facilitating chemical reactions through the introduction of electrical energy.


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