In the UK, lighting consumes around 58,000GWh each year which amounts to about 20% of all the electricity generated. If we are to ensure a high quality of life for future generations this level must be reduced. The reason for this is that most of our electricity is generated by burning fossil fuels which causes carbon dioxide emissions that, in turn, contribute to climate change which could have devastating effects on the quality of life for the future.
The way a building is lit – whether by daylight, electric light or as is more usual by a combination of the two (at least for some part of the day) – will affect the performance of its occupants. This means that the human requirement aspect of lighting is of key importance. But as electric lighting is a major consumer of electricity the energy efficiency of an installation must also be a prime consideration.
1.1 Current Scenario
In spite of improvements in the efficiency of lighting technologies since the early 20th century, outdoor public lighting systems (streets, parks, public spaces, etc.) can still account for as much as 40 percent of a municipal government’s total electricity use. Lighting manufacturers are responding to cities’ concerns for reducing costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by developing more efficient lighting products integrated with sensor technologies control systems, artistic accessories, and renewable energy components. While LED technology offers a wide range of unique potential benefits, a review of the literature finds that cities are primarily interested in the energy-reducing promise of LEDs for street lighting and traffic light applications with little focus on the performance issues or aesthetic and place making opportunities presented by LEDs and street lighting in general. This emphasis is in response to the high priority concerns of global climate change and financial
Restraints of governments across all levels. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that converting to LED lighting over the next two decades could reduce energy consumption by one-quarter, saving $120 billion in energy costs and diverting 246 million metric tons of carbon emissions. While older technologies are concurrently being improved, LED lighting sources are expected to continue to surpass other technologies in terms of efficacy. As a result, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005) and Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007) mandates the DOE to expedite the development of solid- state lighting (SSL) technology with an emphasis on advancing core technology research, product development, and manufacturing support. The following special characteristics of LEDs make them especially useful in outdoor applications.
2.1 Work Plan
2.1.1 Parts of the System
a. Power Supply
b. Solar Panel
c. 555 timer
d. 4017 Decade Counter
So far this report has considered the various equipment issues that need to be considered to provide an energy efficient lighting installation, but the design of the installation where all the parts come together to form an installation for the application of the building and its users is just as important. In fact, in terms of the overall productivity it will be even more important because however efficient an installation is in conserving energy if it is not appropriate for the particular activity it could be counter productive. Early in the lighting design process it will be necessary to assess the occupants’ tasks so that the lighting requirements can be determined. This will enable such things as ‘how much’ and ‘what type of light’ are required for the application. It will also address where any supplementary lighting is required for safe circulation and to create a building that has a pleasant appearance. The lit appearance of a building is an important aspect of lighting design and where this has been ignored, and for example, a gloomy appearance building has resulted, user dissatisfaction has sometimes occurred.
Obviously, the amount of task light provided will have an effect on the amount of energy consumed. If an area is lit to a level of say 300lux it will generally consume half the energy of an installation that provides 600lux. The task illuminance recommendation is an important guide to ensure user productivity and any reduction can be a false economy. Illuminance is the technical term to describe the light level on a particular surface, usually the
working surface (e.g. a desktop), but it could also be the floor for circulation spaces like corridors.
The units are lumens per square metre or lux (1lumen/m2 = 1lux).
The PCB must be fabricated first. Then the components are soldered carefully to PCB. We should keep in mind that the quality of soldering affects the quality of output. The procedure for fabricating the PCB for setting up the circuit of any multipurpose project is described below.
CONCLUSION & FUTURE WORK
The main components in the project are described along with working which is useful to understand the project better and helps us in analyzing the scope and working. We have seen the working and output of the project and discussed in detail.
It gives us an overview of the implementation of the project and the hardware tools used in the project.
By doing this project, it was very helpful to us to gain a better insight on the vast field of solar & electronics system. This project does not consume much power and the components used in the project are familiar to many people.
This approach is leading to the consideration of the total annual amount of electric energy used for lighting. This approach will give the designer and user more flexibility in their approach to suit the particular requirements for the application and the building. This approach will require energy efficiency in lighting to be specified in terms of kWh/year or kWh/m/year, instead of power density in W/m.